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Chemistry Reminders

Posted on October 29, 2011 at 8:25 AM

Dear A1 students, do scan through this set of questions. Part 2 incoming. Beep me if you have problem or leave your question in the comment section. Do look through the physics post below too.

Final Reminders Part 1

Kinetic Particle Theory

1 Do you know how to draw the cooling and heating curves?

2 Do you know the state of a substance at a stated temperature, given its MP and BP?

3 Do you know how to describe the 3 states of matter in terms of their arrangement, movement?

4 Do you know that energy is taken in during melting and boiling?

5 Do you know that energy is released during freezing and condensation?

6 Do you know how to explain why temperature remains constant during change of state?

7 Do you know which substances sublime?

8 Do you know how to draw particles in the 3 states?

9 Do you know how to draw particles during change of state?



Measurement, Experimental Techniques and Separation

1 Do you know how to decide which method of separation to use for a particular type of mixture?

2 Do you know why liquids can pass through the filter paper but solids cannot?

3 Do you know why water enters the condenser at the bottom and exit at the top?

4 Do you know why water enters the condenser at the bottom?

5 Do you know the role of fractionating column?

6 Do you know how do decide if a substance is pure?

7 Do you know the principle behind the chromatography separation?

8 Do you know how to calculate RF value for a substance? (PURE chem.)

9 Do you know how to remove carbon dioxide from a sample of gas?

10 Do you know how to remove acidic gases from a sample of gas?

11 Do you know how to remove soluble gases from a sample of gas?

12 Do you know which gases are soluble?

13 Do you know which gases are acidic?

14 Do you know ammonia is the most important alkaline gas?

15 Do you know when to use upward delivery of gas when to use downward delivery of gases?

16 Do you know the estimated Mr of air?

17 Do you know how to decide which gas has a higher rate of diffusion?

18 Do you know the different fractions of air can be separated using fractional distillation of liquid air?

19 Do you know a separating funnel is used to separate immiscible liquids?

20 Do you know pipette has fixed volumes of 10.0, 20.0 and 25.0cm3?

21 Do you know pipette and burette are only 2 equipment that is very accurate?



Element, compounds and mixtures

1 Do you know the difference between compounds and mixtures?

2 Do you know which are the common mixtures?

3 Do you know how to different mixtures, compounds and elements by looking at the particles drawn?

4 Do you know mixtures can be separated using the physical methods of separation?



Atomic Structure

1 Do you know that group number is the same as the number of valence electrons?

2 Do you know the number of electron shells is the same as the period number?

3 Do you know the proton number or the atomic number represents the number of electrons or protons?

4 Do you know mass number or nucleon represents the total number of protons and neutrons?

5 Do you know how to explain why elements like chlorine do not have a whole number for it’s relative atomic mass?

6 Do you know how to explain why noble gases are not reactive?

7 Do you know how to explain why a certain element is a metal?

8 Do you know how to explain why a certain element is a non-metal?

9 Do you know how to define an isotope?

10 Do you know the relative masses of the sub atomic particles?

11 Do you know the relative charges of the sub atomic particles?

12 Do you know where are the sub atomic particles located?

13 Do you know how to calculate the relative atomic mass of various isotopes based on their relative atomic masses? (Pure)

14 Do you know difference in properties of different isotopes?

15 Do you know the similarities in properties of different isotopes?

16 Do you know when an atom loses electron, it becomes positively charged?

17 Do you know when an atom gains electron, it becomes negatively charged?

18 Do you know the motivation behind forming ions is to obtain a stable electronic configuration?



Ionic Bonding and Compounds

1 Do you know they are mainly formed from metal and non-metal chemically bonded to each other?

2 Do you know they are substances with high MP and BP?

3 Do you know they can conduct electricity in molten and liquid state?

4 Do you know they are generally soluble in water?

5 Do you know metals atoms loses electrons and the non-metals atoms gains electrons?

6 Do you know ionic bonds are the electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions?

7 Do you know during change of state electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions are broken?

8 Do you know that the electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions is strong?

9 Do you know giant ionic structure is also known as a lattice structure? (pure)

10 Do you know why MgO has higher melting point than NaCl?



Simple Covalent Bonding and compounds

1 Do you know they are formed mainly from non-metal sharing electrons to form a stable electronic configuration?

2 Do you know they have low MP and BP?

3 Do you know during change of state, simple covalent compounds overcome weak intermolecular forces of attraction between molecules (also known as Van Der Waals forces of attraction)

4 Do you know they are generally insoluble in water?

5 Do you know acids are the only simple covalent molecules that can conduct electricity?

6 Do you know the reason why they can conduct electricity is because acids ionizes to form hydrogen ions in water and hence can conduct electricity?



Giant Covalent Molecules (PURE)

1 Do you know that graphite, diamond and sand (silicon dioxide) are giant covalent molecules?

2 Do you know diamond and sand are tetrahedrally bonded, 1 atom bonded to 4 other atoms?

3 Do you know graphite atoms are hexagonally bonded in layers of carbon atoms?

4 Do you know graphite can conduct electricity because each carbon atom is only bonded to 3 other carbon atoms?

5 Do you know graphite can act as a lubricant because the layers of carbon atoms are bonded by weak intermolecular forces of attraction and hence can slide over each other?

6 Do you know diamond is hard because the atoms are arranged in a tetrahedral structure and is very rigd?



Acid, bases and salts

1 Do you know the 4 reactions of acids, namely with metals, metal hydroxides, metal oxides and metal carbonate?

2 Do you know the physical properties of acids?

3 Do you know all acids are good conductors of electricity in the aqueous state?

4 Do you know CaO is added to neutralize acidic soil?

5 Do you know sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide causes acid rain?

6 Do you know you cannot add fertilizer and neutralize acidic soil at the same time?

7 Do you know bases are metal oxides and metal hydroxide?

8 Do you know alkalis are group 1 hydroxides, ammonium hydroxide (also known as aqueous ammonia) and calcium hydroxide (also known as limewater)?

9 Do you know when acid is spilt always use calcium carbonate because it is insoluble?

10 Do you know the middle point of the titration curve is pH of the solution?

11 Do you know sulfuric acid is known as a strong, dibasic acid?

12 Do you know hydrochloride and nitric acid are both strong and monobasic acid?

13 Do you know all other acids are weak?

14 Do you know strong acids undergoes complete ionization of hydrogen ions in water?

15 Do you know weak acids undergoes incomplete ionization of hydrogen ion?

16 Do you know basic oxide dissolves into water to form an alkali?

17 Do you know ammonium salts react with alkali to form salt, ammonia gas and water?

18 Do you know group 1 and ammonium salts are made by titration method?

19 Do you know titration salts require an acid and an alkali?

20 Do you know soluble (non group 1 and ammonium salt) are made by neutralization?

21 Do you know the easiest way to make the neutralization salts is by acid and metal carbonate?

22 Do you know in neutralization method we add excess metal carbonate to react with all the acid?

23 Do you know insoluble salts are made by precipitation?

24 Do you know precipitation salts are easily made by using a nitrate salt and sodium salt?



Periodic Table

1 Do you know down the group, reactivity of group 1 metals increases?

2 Do you know down the group, melting and boiling point of group 1 metal decreases?

3 Do you know down the group, group 1 metals’ density increases?

4 Do you know down the group, reactivity of group 7 elements decreases?

5 Do you know down the group, melting and boiling points of group 7 elements increase?

6 Do you know down the group, the states of group 7 elements are g,g,l,s,s states?

7 Do you know down the group, density of group 7 elements increases?

8 Do you know how to explain reactivity using the concept of atomic radius and screening effect? (more for pure)

9 Do you know group 1 elements are called alkali metals?

10 Do you know group 7 elements are called halogens?

11 Do you know halogens are only coloured when in diatomic form?

12 Do you know the colour of group 7 elements darkens down the group?

13 Do you know across the period, elements changes from a metal to a non-metal?

14 Do you know across the period, elements form basic oxide to amphoteric oxide to acidic oxide?

15 Do you know across the period it changes from metallic element to non-metallic element?

16 Do you know how to explain why noble gases are unreactive?

17 Do you know noble gases are used in cases where an inert environment is needed, for example Ar in the light bulb?

18 Do you know inert means unreactive?

19 Do you know transition metals lies between group 2 and group 3?

20 Do you know transition metals forms coloured compound?

21 Do you know transition metals have high melting boiling point?

22 Do you know transition metals can act as catalyst, eg like nickel in the addition of hydrogen, iron in the making of ammonia.

23 Do you know group 1 metals have low MP, BP?

24 Do you know group 1 metals are soft?

25 Do you know group 1 metals have low density?

26 Do you know halogens form diatomic molecule?

27 Do you know diatomic means 2 atoms chemically joined together?



Metals

1 Do you know only group 1 and calcium reacts with water to form metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas?

2 Do you know magnesium, zinc and iron reacts with steam to form metal oxide and hydrogen gas?

3 Do you know aluminium is excluded from most reaction because of it’s unreactive aluminium oxide layer which prevents most reaction from happening?

4 Do you know metals higher than hydrogen in the reactivity series reacts with acid to form salt and hydrogen gas?

5 Do you know how to describe displacement reaction observation?

6 Do you know most copper salts are blue?

7 Do you know group 1 carbonates are unable to break down upon strong heating?

8 Do you know the other metal carbonate when heated forms metal oxide and carbon dioxide gas?

9 Do you know green copper (II) carbonate breaks down to produce black copper (II) oxide and carbon dioxide gas?

10 Do you know alloys are stronger than pure metal due to the disruption of regularly arranged atoms in the metal by atoms of different sizes?

11 Do you know brass is zinc and copper?

12 Do you know bronze is tin and copper?

13 Do you know steel iron and carbon??

14 Do you know price of metals are dependent on the metal’s abundance and extraction method?

15 Do you know metals above aluminium is extracted from their ores by electrolysis?

16 Do you know metals below iron, extraction is by reduction using carbon.

17 Do you know the 5 equations of blast furnace?

18 Do you know the chemical name of the molten slag?

19 Do you know why newly extracted iron is too brittle?

20 Do you know why painting, applying oil prevents the rusting process?

21 Do you know how to explain sacrificial protection? (Pure)

22 Do you know zinc is used to prevent ship from rusting and magnesium for underground pipes? (Pure)



Rate of reaction

1 Do you know the 5 factors affecting rate of reaction?

2 Do you know how to explain each factor using collision theory?

3 Do you know how to draw the setup to measure rate of reaction?

4 Do you know how to draw the graphs to indicate rate of reaction?

5 Do you know gradient of the graphs shows you the rate of reaction?

6 Do you know how to explain why reactions are always fast at the beginning and slows down as reaction proceeds?

 

 

 

Categories: Chemistry

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